allove 发表于 2008-3-1 16:26:03

英国可卡犬(English Cocker Spaniel)AKC标准及简介

<STRONG><SPAN style="FLOAT: right"></SPAN>英国可卡犬简介</STRONG>
<P>英国可卡犬是一种活泼、欢快的运动犬,马肩隆为身躯最高点,结构紧凑。他的性格活泼;他的步态强有力,且没有阻力;有能力轻松地完成搜索任务,及用尖锐的叫声惊飞鸟类,并执行寻回任务。他非常热衷于在野外工作,不断摆动的尾巴显示出在狩猎过程中,他有多么享受,这正好符合培养这个品种的目的。他的头部非常特殊。首先,他必须是一条非常匀称的狗,不论在站立时还是在运动中,没有任何一个部位显得夸张,整体的协调性比这些部位的总和更重要。</P><STRONG>二、[英国可卡犬的体型] </STRONG>
<P>尺寸:肩高:雄性为16~17英寸;雌性为15~16英寸。背离这一范围属于缺陷。最理想的体重:雄性约为28~34磅;雌性约为26~32磅。正确的结构和体质比纯粹的体重更为重要。<BR><BR>比例:紧凑的结构和较短的接合,肩高略微大于从马肩隆到尾根处的距离。体质:英国可卡犬是一种结构稳固的狗,拥有尽可能多的骨量和体质,但不会显得土气或粗糙。</P><STRONG>三、[英国可卡犬的头部]</STRONG>
<P>整体外观:结实,但决不粗糙,轮廓柔和,没有尖锐的棱角。整体给人的感觉是,所有部位所组成的表情与其他品种相比显得与众不同。<BR><BR>表情:温和,甜蜜,但威严,警惕而且聪明。<BR><BR>眼睛:眼睛是理想表情的根本。中等大小,丰满而略呈卵形;分开的距离宽阔;眼睑紧。瞬膜不显眼;有色素沉积或没有色素沉积。除了肝色和带肝色的杂色狗允许有榛色眼睛(较深的榛色更好)外,其他颜色狗的眼睛颜色为深褐色。<BR><BR>耳朵:位置低,贴着头部悬挂;耳廓细腻,能延伸到鼻尖,覆盖着长、丝质、直或略微呈波浪状的毛发。脑袋:圆拱而略显平坦,分别从侧面和正面观察。观察其轮廓,眉毛并没有高出后脑多少。从上面观察,脑袋两侧的平面与口吻两侧的平面大致平行。止部清晰,但适中,且略有凹槽。口吻:与脑袋长度一致;适度丰满;只比脑袋稍微窄一点,宽度在眼睛所在的位置达成一致;眼睛下方轮廓整洁。颌部结实,有能力运送猎物。鼻孔开阔,且嗅觉相当发达;鼻镜颜色为黑色,除了肝色或带肝色的杂色狗的鼻镜可以是褐色;红色或带红色的杂色狗的鼻镜颜色可以是褐色,但黑色是首选。嘴唇呈四方形,但不下垂,也没有夸张的上唇。牙齿:剪状咬和。钳状咬和也可以接受,但不理想。上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和属于严重缺陷。</P><STRONG>四、[英国可卡犬的颈部、背线、身躯] </STRONG>
<P>颈部:优美,且肌肉发达,向头部方向显得圆拱,与头部接合整洁,没有赘肉,并融入倾斜的肩胛;长度适中,且与狗的高度及长度平衡。背线:颈部与肩胛接合处到背线呈平滑的曲线。背线非常轻微地向圆圆的臀部倾斜,没有下陷或褶皱。身躯:紧凑且接合紧密,给人的印象是非常有力,但不沉重。胸部深;没有宽到影响前肢动作的程度,也不是太窄,而显得前躯太窄或缩在一起。前胸非常发达,胸骨突出,略微超过肩胛与上臂的结合关节。胸部深度达到肘部,并向后逐渐向上倾斜,适度上提。肋骨支撑良好,并逐渐向身躯中间撑起,后端略细,有足够的深度,并充分向后扩展。背部短而结实。腰部短、宽且非常轻微地圆拱,但不足以影响背线。臀部非常圆,没有任何陡峭的迹象。尾巴:断尾。位置位于臀部,理想状态下,尾巴保持水平,而且在他运动时,动作坚定。在兴奋时,尾巴可能举的高一些,但决不能向上竖起。</P><STRONG>五、[英国可卡犬的前躯]</STRONG>
<P>英国可卡犬略有棱角。肩胛倾斜,肩胛骨平坦而平稳。肩胛骨与上臂骨程度大致相等,上臂骨位置靠后,与肩胛骨之间的连接,有足够的角度,使他在自然状态站立时,肘部正好位于肩胛骨顶端的正下方。<BR><BR>前肢:直,从肘部到胶骨的骨骼几乎完全是同样的尺寸;肘部的位置贴近身躯;胶骨几乎是笔直的,略有弹性。足爪:与腿部比例恰当,稳固,圆形的猫足;脚趾圆拱,紧凑;脚垫厚实。</P><STRONG>六、[英国可卡犬的后躯]</STRONG>
<P>&lt;角度适中,与前躯的平衡是非常重要的。臀部相当宽,且圆。第一节大腿宽,粗且肌肉发达,能提供强大的驱动力。第二节大腿肌肉发达,且长度与第一节大腿的长度大致相等。膝关节结实且适度弯曲。从飞节到脚垫的距离短。足爪与前躯相同。/p&gt;</P><STRONG>七、[英国可卡犬的被毛] </STRONG>
<P>头部的毛发短而纤细;身体上的毛发长度适中;平坦或带有轻微的波浪状;质地为丝质。英国可卡犬有许多羽状饰毛,但不会多到影响他在野外工作。修剪是允许的,去处多余的毛发并强调他的自然线条。但必须修剪地尽可能接近自然形态。</P><STRONG>八、[英国可卡犬的颜色]</STRONG>
<P>有很多种。杂色可以是整洁的斑纹、斑点或花斑色,白色为主,结合了黑色、肝色或不同深浅的红色。在杂色中,最可取的是身上有纯色斑块,或多或少,均匀分布;身躯上没有斑块也可以接受。纯色是黑色、肝色或不同深浅的红色。纯色带有白色足爪属于缺陷;喉咙带有少量白色是允许的;但这些白色斑块决不能使他看起来象杂色。棕色斑纹,清晰整洁,不同深浅,可以与黑色、肝色、及杂色结合在一起。黑色和棕色、肝色和棕色也被归为纯色。</P><STRONG>九、[英国可卡犬的步态] </STRONG>
<P>英国可卡犬是能够在浓密的灌木丛中和丘陵地带狩猎的猎犬。所以他的步态特点更多的表现在强大的驱动力方面,而且速度非常快。当他在角度适当的情况下,可以很轻松地覆盖地面,并延伸到前面和后面。在比赛场中,他骄傲地昂起他的头,并且,在站立等待检查时和行走中,背线都能保持一致。过来或离去时,行走路线笔直,没有横行或摇摆,当结构和步态都恰当的前提下,前腿和后腿间都保持相当宽的距离。</P><STRONG>十、[英国可卡犬的气质] </STRONG>
<P>英国可卡犬是欢快而挚爱的狗、性格平静,既不慢吞吞的,也不过度亢奋,一个乐于工作,可靠而迷人的伴侣。</P>
<P>标准通过日期:1988年10月11日<BR>标准执行日期:1988年11月30日</P>[以下为英国可卡犬(English Cocker Spaniel)AKC标准英文原版]<BR>
<H2>English Cocker Spaniel Breed Standard</H2><BR><STRONG>General Appearance</STRONG> <BR>The English Cocker Spaniel is an active, merry sporting dog, standing well up at the withers and compactly built. He is alive with energy; his gait is powerful and frictionless, capable both of covering ground effortlessly and penetrating dense cover to flush and retrieve game. His enthusiasm in the field and the incessant action of his tail while at work indicate how much he enjoys the hunting for which he was bred. His head is especially characteristic. He is, above all, a dog of balance, both standing and moving, without exaggeration in any part, the whole worth more than the sum of its parts. <BR><BR><STRONG>Size, Proportion, Substance</STRONG> <BR><STRONG>Size</STRONG>-Height at withers: males 16 to 17 inches; females 15 to 16 inches. Deviations to be penalized. The most desirable weights: males, 28 to 34 pounds; females, 26 to 32 pounds. Proper conformation and substance should be considered more important than weight alone. <EM><STRONG>Proportion</STRONG></EM>--Compactly built and short-coupled, with height at withers slightly greater than the distance from withers to set-on of tail. <EM><STRONG>Substance</STRONG></EM>--The English Cocker is a solidly built dog with as much bone and substance as is possible without becoming cloddy or coarse. <BR><BR><STRONG>Head</STRONG><BR>General appearance: strong, yet free from coarseness, softly contoured, without sharp angles. Taken as a whole, the parts combine to produce the expression distinctive of the breed. <EM><STRONG>Expression</STRONG></EM>--Soft, melting, yet dignified, alert, and intelligent. <EM><STRONG>Eyes</STRONG></EM>--The eyes are essential to the desired expression. They are medium in size, full and slightly oval; set wide apart; lids tight. Haws are inconspicuous; may be pigmented or unpigmented. Eye color dark brown, except in livers and liver parti-colors where hazel is permitted, but the darker the hazel the better. <EM><STRONG>Ears</STRONG></EM>--Set low, lying close to the head; leather fine, extending to the nose, well covered with long, silky, straight or slightly wavy hair. <EM><STRONG>Skull</STRONG></EM>--Arched and slightly flattened when seen both from the side and from the front. Viewed in profile, the brow appears not appreciably higher than the back-skull. Viewed from above, the sides of the skull are in planes roughly parallel to those of the muzzle. Stop definite, but moderate, and slightly grooved. <EM><STRONG>Muzzle</STRONG></EM>--Equal in length to skull; well cushioned; only as much narrower than the skull as is consistent with a full eye placement; cleanly chiseled under the eyes. Jaws strong, capable of carrying game. Nostrils wide for proper development of scenting ability; color black, except in livers and parti-colors of that shade where they will be brown; reds and parti-colors of that shade may be brown, but black is preferred. Lips square, but not pendulous or showing prominent flews. <EM><STRONG>Bite</STRONG></EM>--Scissors. A level bite is not preferred. Overshot or undershot to be severely penalized. <BR><BR><STRONG>Neck, Topline and Body</STRONG><BR><EM><STRONG>Neck</STRONG></EM>--Graceful and muscular, arched toward the head and blending cleanly, without throatiness, into sloping shoulders; moderate in length and in balance with the length and height of the dog. <EM><STRONG>Topline</STRONG></EM>--The line of the neck blends into the shoulder and backline in a smooth curve. The backline slopes very slightly toward a gently rounded croup, and is free from sagging or rumpiness. <EM><STRONG>Body</STRONG></EM>--Compact and well-knit, giving the impression of strength without heaviness. Chest deep; not so wide as to interfere with action of forelegs, nor so narrow as to allow the front to appear narrow or pinched. Forechest well developed, prosternum projecting moderately beyond shoulder points. Brisket reaches to the elbow and slopes gradually to a moderate tuck-up. Ribs well sprung and springing gradually to mid-body, tapering to back ribs which are of good depth and extend well back. Back short and strong. Loin short, broad and very slightly arched, but not enough to affect the topline appreciably. Croup gently rounded, without any tendency to fall away sharply. <EM><STRONG>Tail</STRONG></EM>--Docked. Set on to conform to croup. Ideally, the tail is carried horizontally and is in constant motion while the dog is in action. Under excitement, the dog may carry his tail somewhat higher, but not cocked up. <BR><BR><STRONG>Forequarters</STRONG><BR>The English Cocker is moderately angulated. Shoulders are sloping, the blade flat and smoothly fitting. Shoulder blade and upper arm are approximately equal in length. Upper arm set well back, joining the shoulder with sufficient angulation to place the elbow beneath the highest point of the shoulder blade when the dog is standing naturally. <EM><STRONG>Forelegs</STRONG></EM>--Straight, with bone nearly uniform in size from elbow to heel; elbows set close to the body; pasterns nearly straight, with some flexibility. <EM><STRONG>Feet</STRONG></EM>-- Proportionate in size to the legs, firm, round and catlike; toes arched and tight; pads thick. <BR><BR><STRONG>Hindquarters<BR></STRONG>Angulation moderate and, most importantly, in balance with that of the forequarters. Hips relatively broad and well rounded. Upper thighs broad, thick and muscular, providing plenty of propelling power. Second thighs well muscled and approximately equal in length to the upper. Stifle strong and well bent. Hock to pad short. Feet as in front. <BR><BR><STRONG>Coat<BR></STRONG>On head, short and fine; of medium length on body; flat or slightly wavy; silky in texture. The English Cocker is well-feathered, but not so profusely as to interfere with field work. Trimming is permitted to remove overabundant hair and to enhance the dog's true lines. It should be done so as to appear as natural as possible. <BR><BR><STRONG>Color<BR></STRONG>Various. Parti-colors are either clearly marked, ticked or roaned, the white appearing in combination with black, liver or shades of red. In parti-colors it is preferable that solid markings be broken on the body and more or less evenly distributed; absence of body markings is acceptable. Solid colors are black, liver or shades of red. White feet on a solid are undesirable; a little white on throat is acceptable; but in neither case do these white markings make the dog a parti-color. Tan markings, clearly defined and of rich shade, may appear in conjunction with black, livers and parti-color combinations of those colors. Black and tans and liver and tans are considered solid colors. <BR><BR><STRONG>Gait</STRONG><BR>The English Cocker is capable of hunting in dense cover and upland terrain. His gait is accordingly characterized more by drive and the appearance of power than by great speed. He covers ground effortlessly and with extension both in front and in rear, appropriate to his angulation. In the ring, he carries his head proudly and is able to keep much the same topline while in action as when standing for examination. Going and coming, he moves in a straight line without crabbing or rolling, and with width between both front and rear legs appropriate to his build and gait. <BR><BR><STRONG>Temperament<BR></STRONG>The English Cocker is merry and affectionate, of equable disposition, neither sluggish nor hyperactive, a willing worker and a faithful and engaging companion. <STRONG><BR><BR>Approved October 11, 1988</STRONG><BR><STRONG>Effective November 30, 1988</STRONG>
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