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英国激飞猎犬(English Springer Spaniel)AKC标准及介绍

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发表于 2008-3-1 16:22:51 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
英国激飞猎犬(英国跳猎犬)是一种中型运动犬,身躯紧凑,且断尾。被毛长度适中,在腿部、耳朵、胸部、腹部有羽状饰毛。他下垂的耳朵、温柔文雅的表情、坚定的结构和友好地摆动的尾巴,宣布他无疑是猎鹬犬这一古老家族中的一员。首先,他必须是一个非常匀称的狗,没有任何夸张之处,所有的部位都显得精细而和谐。他的姿势是自豪地站立着,身躯很深,腿结实而肌肉发达,有足够的长度,能轻松地支撑身躯。从整体来看,英国激飞猎犬显得有力量、耐力,且非常敏捷。他看起来就是那种能在艰苦的条件下从事狩猎工作,并能坚持下去的狗。最好的英国激飞猎犬是显得时尚、匀称、平稳而热情,属于彻底的运动犬,带有明显的猎鹬犬的特征,结合了美观和效用。


英国激飞猎犬的体型


英国激飞猎犬的结构使他能覆盖杂乱粗糙的地面,敏捷且速度合理。他的结构使他能产生很强的耐力。他应该保持中等体型。雄性的理想肩高为 20英寸;雌性的理想肩高为19英寸。误差超过1英寸属于缺陷。一个肩高20英寸的雄性,在结构匀称,各方面的条件都很好的时候,体重约为50磅;肩高 19英寸的雌性,体重约为40磅。身躯的长度(从肩胛骨与上臂接合处到臀部的距离)略微大于肩高。一个身躯太长的狗,尤其是腰部太长,容易疲劳而且缺乏这个品种应有的紧凑的轮廓线;一个相对于腿的长度而言,身躯太短的狗,破坏了整体平衡,且影响步态。这两种情况一样不可取,都属于缺陷。英国激飞猎犬应该拥有正确的体质,显得扎实而强健,骨量充足,但决不能显得粗笨或笨拙。

英国激飞猎犬的头部

头部给人的印象是不很沉重。它非常漂亮,结合了力量和精致。最重要的是它的尺寸和比例与其他部分保持平衡。从轮廓上观察,头部的长度与颈部到融入身躯处的长度大致相等。止部,眉毛和眼窝周围的骨骼结构显示出猎鹬犬漂亮而独特的表情,警惕、和善而信任。眼睛,相对于其他部分,是猎鹬犬吸引力的基础。正确的尺寸、形状、位置、及颜色影响着他的表情和吸引力。

眼睛中等大小,卵形,位置分的比较开,且在眼窝中比较深。眼睛的颜色与被毛的颜色协调,肝色和白色的狗,眼睛颜色为深榛色;黑色和白色的狗,眼睛颜色为黑色或褐色。眼圈色素充足,与被毛颜色相匹配。眼睑紧,没有或很少的瞬膜显露出来。眼睛小、圆、突出,及颜色为黄颜色或黄铜色,都属于严重缺陷。

耳朵长而相当宽,贴着面颊悬挂,没有竖立或向外的迹象。耳廓薄,长度大致能延伸到鼻尖。正确的耳朵位置应该与眼睛在同一水平线,且不能位于脑袋太靠后的位置。

脑袋长度适中,顶部相当宽、平坦,侧面和后面略微圆拱。后枕骨不明显。脑袋从前脸上升,由止部开始,中间有凹槽或浅沟分开,凹槽位于眼睛中间。凹槽延伸到前额中间时就消失了。总的来说,止部是适中的。它(止部)在面貌中不应该是很突出的;更象是口吻与脑袋连接处的精细的上升。但它被凹槽、眉毛的位置和形状强调了,眉毛是非常发达的。

口吻的长度与脑袋的长度大致相等,宽度只有脑袋的一半。从轮廓上观察,口吻与脑袋的轮廓线大致上相互平行。

鼻梁骨直,到鼻尖为止,没有向下弯曲的迹象,后者会造成盘子脸的外貌,属于缺陷。鼻梁骨既不是向下弯曲,形成 “盘子”脸;也不是向上突起,形成罗马鼻。

面颊平坦,眼睛下方的脸部显得轮廓分明。

颌部有充足的长度,允许他轻松地叼回猎物。相当接近四方形,倾斜而结实。上唇垂下来,呈四方形,遮盖住下颌线条,无论如何,嘴唇不能过分夸张地下垂。

鼻镜色素充足,颜色为肝色或黑色,与被毛的颜色相互匹配。鼻孔开阔,且宽。

牙齿结实,整洁,尺寸恰当,剪状咬和最为理想。钳状咬和或有 1~2颗门牙略微偏离对齐线,属于次要缺陷。上颚突出式咬和、下颚突出式咬和或歪曲的颌部属于严重缺陷,并需要严厉惩罚。

英国激飞猎犬的颈部、背线、身躯

颈部长度适中,肌肉发达,整洁,顶端略微圆拱。逐渐、平顺地融入倾斜的肩胛。从马肩隆到尾根处这部分背线稳固,且非常轻微地倾斜。

身躯接合较短,结实而紧凑。

胸部深,延伸到肘部,前胸非常发达;但是,绝对不能太宽或太圆,而干涉到前肢的动作。肋骨相当长,向身躯中间部位逐渐撑起,而且接近末端的部位逐渐变细。下腹曲线水平,从肘部到腰窝略微上提。

背部直、结实,基本上是水平的;腰部短、结实,略微圆拱。臀部呈精致的圆形,平滑地融入后腿。臀部逐渐向尾根处倾斜,尾巴的位置是臀部曲线的自然延伸。

尾巴的姿势保持水平,或略高一些,显示出他特有的活泼、欢快的动作,在游戏时更明显。夹起来的尾巴(显得胆怯或不可靠)属于缺陷,反之,尾巴象梗类犬那样,与背线呈 90度角也属于缺陷。

英国激飞猎犬的前躯

正确的前躯结构能够产生有效率的动作。肩胛骨平坦,且在顶端非常靠近,平滑地融入身躯曲线。理想的情况是:从马肩隆到肩胛骨与上臂骨结合关节,再到肘部这端部位,肩胛骨与上臂骨的长度大致相同,而且,上臂骨与肩胛骨呈大约 90度的角;这样使前臂再身躯下方正确的位置,且肘部正好再肩胛骨顶端的正下方。肘部贴近身躯。

前臂直,到足爪这端部位的骨骼尺寸基本一致。骨骼结实、略平,不能太圆或太重。骹骨短、结实,略微倾斜,不显得软弱。狼爪通常需要切除。

足爪圆或略呈卵形。紧凑而圆拱,大小适中,脚垫厚实,脚趾间有羽状饰毛。

英国激飞猎犬的后躯

英国激飞猎犬不论在工作中,还是在比赛中,都需要有坚实、肌肉发达、而且非常强健的臀部和大腿。他的整个后躯显示出强健有力,且驱动力强大。大腿宽而肌肉发达。膝关节结实。考虑到功能和效率,后躯的角度决不能大于前躯,更不能有任何缺乏。飞节略呈圆形,不能太小或轮廓过于锐利。后骹骨短(大约为从臀部到足爪距离的 1/3)、结实且骨骼强健。从后面观察,后腿彼此平行。狼爪通常需要切除。足爪与前躯相同,除了略小一些,且更紧凑。

英国激飞猎犬的被毛

英国激飞猎犬拥有外层披毛和底毛。在身躯上,披毛为中等长度,平坦或略呈波浪状,很容易与底毛区分开,底毛短、柔软和浓密。底毛的数量受到季节和气候的影响。在底毛和披毛的共同保护下,使他可以防水、抵御恶劣气候,并能在荆棘从中得到保护。英国激飞猎犬的耳朵、胸部、腿部和腹部,有许多羽状饰毛,饰毛长度适中,非常厚重。在头部、前肢前面、飞节下面和后肢前面,毛发短而细腻。被毛整洁、有光泽、 “活跃”的外观,显示出良好的健康状况。在头部、耳朵、颈部和足爪进行合理的修剪,去处死毛(脱落的底毛)、将多余的饰毛修薄、修短,使外观更漂亮。尾巴可以修剪,或在边缘保留波浪状饰毛。总的来说,外观应该显得自然,过度修剪,尤其是身躯上的被毛,毛发破碎、毛发起伏、或显得虚假的造型都属于缺陷;同样,饰毛太多,影响了运动犬整洁的轮廓曲线,也属于缺陷。正确的被毛品质和样式,比单纯的被毛数量更重要。

英国激飞猎犬的颜色

下列颜色组合及斑纹都可以接受,而且地位相同。

( 1)黑色或肝色带有白色斑纹或主要是白色,带有黑色或肝色斑纹。

( 2)兰色或肝色的杂色。

( 3)三色:黑色和白色或肝色和白色,带有棕色斑纹,棕色斑纹通常在眉毛、面颊、耳朵内侧和尾巴下面。白色被毛有可能带有污迹。没有怪异的颜色,如柠檬色、红色或橘色。

英国激飞猎犬的步态

对英国激飞猎犬的结构及稳固性的最后测试就是看其动作。动作良好的前提就是非常匀称的结构。前躯和后躯有相同的角度和肌肉发达程度,使步态平顺而轻松。肩胛向后倾斜,允许较大的步幅,就象后躯能提供强大的驱动力。从侧面观察,英国激飞猎犬显示出步幅较长的步伐,稳固的背部姿势,没有倾斜、拱起、或左右摇摆。从前面观察,前肢向前摆动显得轻松舒展。从肩胛到肘部的动作显得舒展,前腿没有交叉或干涉的迹象。随着速度增加,四肢自然地向身体中心线聚集收拢。错误的步态包括了:抬腿太高;多余的动作;短而起伏的步伐;斜行;足爪分的太开,后躯身体显示出滚动及摇摆。

英国激飞猎犬的气质

典型的英国激飞猎犬是友善、热衷于取悦主人、学习能力强、且乐于服从的狗。这样的特点有助于管理,适当的训犬师在野外能方便地控制。在比赛中,显得镇静而专著,允许裁判检查他的身体,既不愤怒,也不阿谀。对人类有攻击欲望,或对其他狗有攻击欲望,不符合运动犬的特征,属于缺陷。过分胆怯,对幼犬和新手可以宽容,需要公平的惩罚。

英国激飞猎犬总结

在评估英国激飞猎犬,首先是考虑整体印象。看上去是否典型,主要包括整体外貌和轮廓;还有稳固性,包括了动作和气质。因为,如果他拥有平顺、轻松的步态,必定拥有健康和和匀称的结构,值得高度关注,但是,如果他看上去根本不象一个英国激飞猎犬,则不能宽恕。如果一个狗的腿部太长或太短,头部或表情完全错误,可能动作很好,但决不会比一个其他方面都不错,步态方面有些小缺陷的狗更可取。必须记住,英国激飞猎犬首先(也是第一位的)是猎鹬犬家族中的一员,是一个运动犬,外观、举止及步态都必须符合这个标准。

标准通过日期: 1994年2月12日
标准执行日期:1994年3月31日
[以下为英国激飞猎犬(English Springer Spaniel)AKC标准英文原版]

English Springer Spaniel Breed Standard


General Appearance
The English Springer Spaniel is a medium-sized sporting dog, with a compact body and a docked tail. His coat is moderately long, with feathering on his legs, ears, chest and brisket. His pendulous ears, soft gentle expression, sturdy build and friendly wagging tail proclaim him unmistakably a member of the ancient family of Spaniels. He is above all a well-proportioned dog, free from exaggeration, nicely balanced in every part. His carriage is proud and upstanding, body deep, legs strong and muscular, with enough length to carry him with ease. Taken as a whole, the English Springer Spaniel suggests power, endurance and agility. He looks the part of a dog that can go, and keep going, under difficult hunting conditions. At his best, he is endowed with style, symmetry, balance and enthusiasm, and is every inch a sporting dog of distinct spaniel character, combining beauty and utility.

Size, Proportion, Substance
The Springer is built to cover rough ground with agility and reasonable speed. His structure suggests the capacity for endurance. He is to be kept to medium size. Ideal height at the shoulder for dogs is 20 inches; for bitches, it is 19 inches. Those more than one inch under or over the breed ideal are to be faulted. A 20 inch dog, well-proportioned and in good condition, will weigh approximately 50 pounds; a 19 inch bitch will weigh approximately 40 pounds. The length of the body (measured from point of shoulder to point of buttocks) is slightly greater than the height at the withers. The dog too long in body, especially when long in the loin, tires easily and lacks the compact outline characteristic of the breed. A dog too short in body for the length of his legs, a condition which destroys balance and restricts gait, is equally undesirable. A Springer with correct substance appears well-knit and sturdy with good bone, however, he is never coarse or ponderous.

Head
The head is impressive without being heavy. Its beauty lies in a combination of strength and refinement. It is important that its size and proportion be in balance with the rest of the dog. Viewed in profile, the head appears approximately the same length as the neck and blends with the body in substance. The stop, eyebrows and chiseling of the bony structure around the eye sockets contribute to the Springer's beautiful and characteristic expression, which is alert, kindly and trusting. The eyes, more than any other feature, are the essence of the Springer's appeal. Correct size, shape, placement and color influence expression and attractiveness. The eyes are of medium size and oval in shape, set rather well-apart and fairly deep in their sockets. The color of the iris harmonizes with the color of the coat, preferably dark hazel in the liver and white dogs and black or deep brown in the black and white dogs. Eyerims are fully pigmented and match the coat in color. Lids are tight with little or no haw showing. Eyes that are small, round or protruding, as well as eyes that are yellow or brassy in color, are highly undesirable. Ears are long and fairly wide, hanging close to the cheeks with no tendency to stand up or out. The ear leather is thin and approximately long enough to reach the tip of the nose. Correct ear set is on a level with the eye and not too far back on the skull. The skull is medium-length and fairly broad, flat on top and slightly rounded at the sides and back. The occiput bone is inconspicuous. As the skull rises from the foreface, it makes a stop, divided by a groove, or fluting, between the eyes. The groove disappears as it reaches the middle of the forehead. The amount of stop is moderate. It must not be a pronounced feature; rather it is a subtle rise where the muzzle joins the upper head. It is emphasized by the groove and by the position and shape of the eyebrows, which are well-developed. The muzzle is approximately the same length as the skull and one half the width of the skull. Viewed in profile, the toplines of the skull and muzzle lie in approximately parallel planes. The nasal bone is straight, with no inclination downward toward the tip of the nose, the latter giving an undesirable downfaced look. Neither is the nasal bone concave, resulting in a "dish-faced" profile; nor convex, giving the dog a Roman nose. The cheeks are flat, and the face is well-chiseled under the eyes. Jaws are of sufficient length to allow the dog to carry game easily: fairly square, lean and strong. The upper lips come down full and rather square to cover the line of the lower jaw, however, the lips are never pendulous or exaggerated. The nose is fully-pigmented, liver or black in color, depending on the color of the coat. The nostrils are well-opened and broad. Teeth are strong, clean, of good size and ideally meet in a close scissors bite. An even bite or one or two incisors slightly out of line are minor faults. Undershot, overshot and wry jaws are serious faults and are to be severely penalized.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is moderately long, muscular, clean and slightly arched at the crest. It blends gradually and smoothly into sloping shoulders. The portion of the topline from withers to tail is firm and slopes very gently. The body is short-coupled, strong and compact. The chest is deep, reaching the level of the elbows, with well-developed forechest; however, it is not so wide or round as to interfere with the action of the front legs. Ribs are fairly long, springing gradually to the middle of the body, then tapering as they approach the end of the ribbed section. The underline stays level with the elbows to a slight upcurve at the flank. The back is straight, strong and essentially level. Loins are strong, short and slightly arched. Hips are nicely-rounded, blending smoothly into the hind legs. The croup slopes gently to the set of the tail, and tail-set follows the natural line of the croup. The tail is carried horizontally or slightly elevated and displays a characteristic lively, merry action, particularly when the dog is on game. A clamped tail (indicating timidity or undependable temperament) is to be faulted, as is a tail carried at a right angle to the backline in Terrier fashion.

Forequarters
Efficient movement in front calls for proper forequarter assembly. The shoulder blades are flat and fairly close together at the tips, molding smoothly into the contour of the body. Ideally, when measured from the top of the withers to the point of the shoulder to the elbow, the shoulder blade and upper arm are of apparent equal length, forming an angle of nearly 90 degrees; this sets the front legs well under the body and places the elbows directly beneath the tips of the shoulder blades. Elbows lie close to the body. Forelegs are straight with the same degree of size continuing to the foot. Bone is strong, slightly flattened, not too round or too heavy. Pasterns are short, strong and slightly sloping, with no suggestion of weakness. Dewclaws are usually removed. Feet are round or slightly oval. They are compact and well-arched, of medium size with thick pads, and well-feathered between the toes.

Hindquarters
The Springer should be worked and shown in hard, muscular condition with well-developed hips and thighs. His whole rear assembly suggests strength and driving power. Thighs are broad and muscular. Stifle joints are strong. For functional efficiency, the angulation of the hindquarter is never greater than that of the forequarter, and not appreciably less. The hock joints are somewhat rounded, not small and sharp in contour. Rear pasterns are short (about 1/3 the distance from the hip joint to the foot) and strong, with good bone. When viewed from behind, the rear pasterns are parallel. Dewclaws are usually removed. The feet are the same as in front, except that they are smaller and often more compact.

Coat
The Springer has an outer coat and an undercoat. On the body, the outer coat is of medium length, flat or wavy, and is easily distinguishable from the undercoat, which is short, soft and dense. The quantity of undercoat is affected by climate and season. When in combination, outer coat and undercoat serve to make the dog substantially waterproof, weatherproof and thornproof. On ears, chest, legs and belly the Springer is nicely furnished with a fringe of feathering of moderate length and heaviness. On the head, front of the forelegs, and below the hock joints on the front of the hind legs, the hair is short and fine. The coat has the clean, glossy, "live" appearance indicative of good health. It is legitimate to trim about the head, ears, neck and feet, to remove dead undercoat, and to thin and shorten excess feathering as required to enhance a smart, functional appearance. The tail may be trimmed, or well fringed with wavy feathering. Above all, the appearance should be natural. Overtrimming, especially the body coat, or any chopped, barbered or artificial effect is to be penalized in the show ring, as is excessive feathering that destroys the clean outline desirable in a sporting dog. Correct quality and condition of coat is to take precedence over quantity of coat.

Color
All the following combinations of colors and markings are equally acceptable:(1) Black or liver with white markings or predominantly white with black or liver markings; (2) Blue or liver roan; (3) Tricolor: black and white or liver and white with tan markings, usually found on eyebrows, cheeks, inside of ears and under the tail. Any white portion of the coat may be flecked with ticking. Off colors such as lemon, red or orange are not to place.

Gait
The final test of the Springer's conformation and soundness is proper movement. Balance is a prerequisite to good movement. The front and rear assemblies must be equivalent in angulation and muscular development for the gait to be smooth and effortless. Shoulders which are well laid-back to permit a long stride are just as essential as the excellent rear quarters that provide driving power. Seen from the side, the Springer exhibits a long, ground-covering stride and carries a firm back, with no tendency to dip, roach or roll from side to side. From the front, the legs swing forward in a free and easy manner. Elbows have free action from the shoulders, and the legs show no tendency to cross or interfere. From behind, the rear legs reach well under the body, following on a line with the forelegs. As speed increases, there is a natural tendency for the legs to converge toward a center line of travel. Movement faults include high-stepping, wasted motion; short, choppy stride; crabbing; and moving with the feet wide, the latter giving roll or swing to the body.

Temperament
The typical Springer is friendly, eager to please, quick to learn and willing to obey. Such traits are conducive to tractability, which is essential for appropriate handler control in the field. In the show ring, he should exhibit poise and attentiveness and permit himself to be examined by the judge without resentment or cringing. Aggression toward people and aggression toward other dogs is not in keeping with sporting dog character and purpose and is not acceptable. Excessive timidity, with due allowance for puppies and novice exhibits, is to be equally penalized.

Summary
In evaluating the English Springer Spaniel, the overall picture is a primary consideration. One should look for type, which includes general appearance and outline, and also for soundness, which includes movement and temperament. Inasmuch as the dog with a smooth easy gait must be reasonably sound and well-balanced, he is to be highly regarded, however, not to the extent of forgiving him for not looking like an English Springer Spaniel. An atypical dog, too short or long in leg length or foreign in head or expression, may move well, but he is not to be preferred over a good all-round specimen that has a minor fault in movement. It must be remembered that the English Springer Spaniel is first and foremost a sporting dog of the Spaniel family, and he must look, behave and move in character.

Approval Date: February 12, 1994
Effective Date: March 31, 1994

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